There are some basics in exegesis that Christians can learn and develop to improve their personal Bible study and their discussion at collective Bible studies. Drawing out of (ex-egesis) Scripture will feed the soul.
Which is the most significant word in the following sentence?
“The red car went down the hill.”
You may say that you need to know the context before you can answer this question. True; but you can learn something about the context by “good and necessary consequence” (Westminster Confession of Faith, Chapter 1, Section 6).
Good and necessary consequence
One can deduce from the definite article – ‘the’ hill – that, in this context, there was only one hill being considered.
One can deduce that there was a red car on this hill, sufficiently far up it that it was capable of going down it.
One can deduce that it is now lower than it was before. One would need to consider the tense of the verb and possibly the context to determine if the motion ‘went down’ was completed or if it was still on-going. The sentence does not say if the car has now stopped because it could have completed its descent of the hill and was now traveling along the flat. The latter point is not a ‘necessary’ consequence or interference. It may or may not be so, and the exegete needs to carry these options in their mind to see if the context will provide clues. A good imagination may consider other possibilities that need to be checked out by the context.
The significant word
So which is the most significant word? Having developed in one’s mind the above picture, where do we go from here?
A useful procedure is to remove words to see what difference it makes to the sentence. What happens when we remove the word ‘red’? Has it made any difference to the picture? Not much? Really? So what happens when you put it back in? Nothing? Not so. We now realise that there must be more than one car on this hill and only one of them is red! There may be ten cars but only one of them is red and it went down the hill. The picture is opening up. It does not say what the other car(s) did, but the exegete will carry this piece of information in mind when reading around the context.
It is for lack of a sanctified imagination that unbelieving Bible critics think that there are contradictions in Scripture. They need to think more.
The humble adjective
So, voilà! The humble adjective ‘red’ is the most significant word in the sentence. It is the distinguishing word.
The subject of the sentence is the red car, which went down the hill, whatever the other car (s) did.
Some examples of the importance of adjectives are here.
Adjectives are important in most discussions and debates, and for failure to realise this and use them accurately, communication ends up at cross purposes.
‘What is faith?’ is an interesting topic. It is not the same as ‘What is saving faith?’ or more specifically What is faith in Jesus Christ? (Westminster Shorter Catechism Question 86.) Assurance of salvation is a particular and specific exercise of faith.
‘What is repentance?’ is useful to discuss as a preliminary to ‘What is evangelical repentance’ or What is repentance unto life? (Westminster Shorter Catechism Question 87.)